Interviews

Prime Sum

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Phone Interview Amazon, Seattle
I. Get the sum of all prime numbers up to N. primeSum(N).
Follow-up: If primeSum(N) is frequently called, how to optimize it.
II. OODesign Parking Lot

I. At first find found all primes <= N (sieve of Eratosthenes). Getting the sum will be easy then.
Follow-up:
Cache the sums for any given N to save time. {N:SUM}
Optimization: Don't have to store sums for every N.
When N = 7, N = 8, N = 9, N = 10, the prime sum remains 17.
For N between 11 to 12, the prime sum is 28.
For N between 13 to 16, the sum is 41.
Use a BST structure as the cache. For N = 16, cache:
{2:3, 4:6, 6:11, 10:17, 12:28, 16:41}
For a given N, call cache.ceilingKey(N) to find the bucket for N.
N/log(n) * log(N)

Complexity
Time:
sieve of Eratosthenes takes O(NloglogN) time.
Insert an element into BST takes O(logN), there are N/logN primes in total to be added.
So building the cache takes logN * N / LogN = O(N) time
requesting primeSum(N) takes O(logN)

Space:
sieve of Eratosthenes takes O(N) extra space which will later be release after the cache is created.
Cache: O(N/logN)


public class PrimeSum {

    TreeMap sums;

    public PrimeSum(int n) { //input the upper limit for all Ns
        sums = new TreeMap<>();
        // init an array to track prime numbers
        boolean[] primes = new boolean[n + 1];
        for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
            primes[i] = true;
        for (int i = 2; i <= Math.sqrt(n); i++) {
            if (primes[i]) {
                for (int j = i + i; j < n; j += i)
                    primes[j] = false;
            }
        }
        // insert sums into cache
        int sum = 0;
        for(int i = 2; i <= n; i++) {
            if(primes[i]) {
                sums.put(i - 1, sum);
                sum += i;
            }
        }
        if(primes[n]) {
            sums.put(n, sum);
        }
    }

    public int primeSum(int N) {
        Integer ceiling = sums.ceilingKey(N);
        //if(ceiling == null) {
            //Exception("input value overflows");
        //}
        return sums.get(ceiling);
    }

}


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